(转载)AP化学物质命名法中英文

碳链

meth-

eth-

prop-

but-

pent-

hex-

hept-

oct-

non-

dec-

十一 undec-

十二 dodec-

十三 tridec-

十四 tetradec-

十五 pentadec-

十六 hexadec-

十七 heptadec-

十八 octadec-

十九 nonadec-

二十 icos-

  benz- (phen-)

  naphthal-

  anthrac-

  phenanthr-

部分有机物中常用名中

form-(羧酸,)

acet-(羧酸,)

propion-()

butyr-(羧酸,)

pentan-()valer-(羧酸)

类型

alkane

  -ane

alkene

单烯  -ene

二烯  -adiene

三烯  -atriene

乙烯(常用) ethylene

丙烯(常用) propylene

alkyne

  -yne

乙炔(常用) acetylene

芳香烃 aromatics

  -ene

alcohol

常用  -yl alcohol

系统  -anol

aldehyde

常用  -aldehyde

系统  -anal

羧酸 carboxylic acid

常用  -ic acid

系统  -anoic acid

*丙酸沿用系统名

ketone

常用  -yl ketone

系统  -one

丙酮(常用) acetone

amine

一胺  -ylamine

二胺  -yldiamine

ether

  -yl ether

*对称的如乙醚可省去di-

ester

 ()-yl ()-ate

加聚物 addition polymer

 poly-(monomer)

 

官能团

烷基 alkyl
  -yl

烯基 alkenyl
  -enyl

炔基 alkynyl
  -ynyl

芳基 aryl

苯基 phenyl
  -yl

羟基 hydroxyl
标准系统  -ol

羰基 carbonyl
标准系统  -one

羧基 carboxyl
标准系统 -oic

卤素 halides
 fluoro-
 chloro-
 bromo-
 iodo-

 

异构

结构异构
 n-
 iso-
 neo-
 cyclo-

prim-ary

sec-ondary 

tert-iary 

tetra-

 

顺反异构
顺式 cis-
反式 trans-

 

手性异构
左旋 L-
右旋 D-

 

官能团异构
 ortho-/o-
 meta-/m-
 para-/p-

 

 

原文链接http://undergrad.tiandaoedu.com/ap/11359.html

 

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